If you plant a plant of a year, you should make a clean cut exactly at the point in which you desire
that the trunk is planted. If you buy a plant in a vase at a nursery, usually it has already been pruned
and for a year it won't need any cut.
For the following prunings, talking about ancient fruits, since there are many varieties it is difficult
to identify just one technique suitable for all the plants. First of all, as already said, we have to
verify the rootstock type, the variety, the soil etc. But let's mention the most common pruning
method, the “vase shape”, which is the most used in family orchards. We have to try to keep
“empty” the central part of the plant, removing the so-called suckers, then reducing the vertical
branches trying to give a shape towards the outside to the rest of them, being careful to leave the
small branches that have swollen and rounded buds. It is always good to eliminate the branches that
intersect each other and those which shade the trunk.
Always eliminate branches that are broken because of traumas or cold weather, and those ruined by
diseases. If the branch that was cut is big, it is appropriate to protect the remaining part with a
cicatrizant paste. 
Some more attention to the pruning of varieties grafted on a free rootstock, that for the first years
tend to produce a lot of vegetation to the detriment of the fruiting (for example plum trees of the
“queen”family, the “saint rose”, etc.), and tend to develop a lot vertically, therefore they fail to
produce flower buds.
In this case, cutting it would worsen the situation, as the plant recreates new suckers that would
only produce unnecessary leaves and wood. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the manuring and to
camber the branches, which has the aim to reduce the branch wood growth and to slow down the
flowing of the sap, favouring this way the transformation of vegetative buds into reproductive buds.