The Rootstock
The rootstock can be produced by the seed (wild or free rootstock), by the cutting from the original
plant (the east malling), or micropropagated in vitro (for example the GF for the peach-tree, which
confers resistance to dryness and clay soils, and the Gisela for the cherry tree).
Once produced the rootstock, which can be defined as the “roots” of the plant, in order to have the
fruit we need to intervene with the grafting tecnique, by inserting the variety that we want to
reproduce in the rootstock.
As a rootstock for the cherry tree, we can use:
• the free one, which will produce a vigorous plant and adaptable to any kind of soil; however,
the fructification will be tardive.
• the meristem, which reduces the chances of growth of the plant, but at the same time it
grants a constant and early fructification, already from the second/third year. 
The rootstocks that we used for the cherry tree are: the free one, malebbo, colt and gisela 6.
For the apricot, plum tree and biricoccolo, as rootstocks we can use the free one or the meristem
29C mirabolano, which don't present particular differences in terms of plant growth and
frutti antichi - portainnesto
For the apple tree, we can use as rootstock the free one and different types of malling (M26, M111,
MM106). Also in this case, the free rootstock will produce a big tree with a tardive fructification,
while with the east malling, based on the variety of the rootstock, we can obtain fruits already from
the second year.
For the pear tree, as rootstock we can use the free one, the quince and the quince BA29. For certain
pear tree varieties (for ex. the red and yellow William and the Kaiser one), it is essential to use the
free rootstock, as they don't have affinity with the quince.
As per the peach and the almond tree, as rootstocks can be used the wild peach or the meristem
GF677 peach tree.
For the azarole, the medlar tree and the sorb, the rootstock to be used is the hawthorn.
For the persimmon tree instead, only the wild persimmon can be used as rootstock.
Figs, pomegranates, kiwis, olives, raspberries, etc. are reproduced through the cutting or the
rooted sucker.
For the vine can be used different types of rootstock, which adapt to the single varieties and the
different kinds of soil: KOBER 5BB, 420A, 1103 PLAUSEN, 140 RUGGERI, SO4, etc.
It will be then the nurseryman who will suggest the best choice for the right rootstock, taking into
consideration the type of soil, its exposure, the climate and the variety that needs to be grafted.
In addition, it is important to remember that the rootstock, in order to successfully host the graft and
allow the taking root, must be in full vegetation.